Wiki – non-verbal communication
Non-Verbal 360° is a form of communication based on the non–verbal aspect. It is a method of specialized interpretation, analyzing unconscious bodily movements.
- Semantic Field
- The Classification of Knowledge
- Scientific acknowledgement
- Notes and References
- Also available External Web Site Bibliography
Actually, we do not communicate non-verbally. For example, astronomy is the science that studies the stars. This must not be confused with the subject of the study: the stars. Scientists practice astronomy not stars. We do not do numbers. We do mathematics. An observation cannot be identified with the same words as the method used for identification. This could lead to misguided knowledge. For this researcher in social sciences, the lack-of precise semantics (meaning of a phrase) is the main obstacle in obtaining clear, scientific results with the non-verbal. This is also the reason why the proper tools have never been found to help observe the real aspect of the non-verbal. The precise concept in this scientific field is still very irregular. With all these facts reunited, synergology has emerged.
Non-Verbal 360° has recognized the findings of certain scholars in accordance with the observations of « l’École de Palo Alto », the papers of Ray Birdwhistell, Edward T. Hall, Gregory Bateson, Paul Watzlawick, but has also founded its own theory based on this school of thinking. Palo Alto’s tendency is to gather every contradiction between the verbal and the non-verbal language. Non-Verbal 360° recognises that non-verbal language is solely responsible for these contradictions, that non-verbal language may have a double meaning. Experts Non-Nerbal 360 ° can decode lies taken on video cameras without the sound. This proves without a doubt that body language alone can sometimes be contradictory. Non-Verbal 360° has founded new concepts in the field of the non-verbal, beginning with body language, concepts which so far, had not yet been described: microscratchings. When a contradiction between verbal information and feelings not openly expressed is experienced, these micro-movements will manifest themselves. Because of this astonishing discovery, every physical gesture will prompt some activity in the brain, therefore eliminating any contradiction through bodily movement. This allows non-verbal communication to be observed in a new semantic field.
In harmony with recent findings concerning « new wave communication », Non-Verbal 360° has pioneered the fact that inter-personal communication is part of a unit. When two people communicate there is a common area of speech. We no longer think in terms of speaker and listener. However, theories of Non-Verbal 360° do not wish to be considered solely as part of a unit. Along with the aspect of interactive relationships, we must not forget each individual’s background, manifested by certain physical particularities. Everyone has inherited unique bodily gestures. Non-Verbal 360°, an intellectual study allows the reading of gestures to be linked to emotions and subconscious intentions. This is possible because cognitive episodes, psycho-affection and neuro-movements are all linked together. Emotions will surface, manifested by unconscious bodily gestures. To give credibility to this theory, certain rules must be established, keeping in mind the anatomy, in the classification of bodily micro-gestures. Numerous classifications have surfaced. They respect the difference between:
1. Gestures which interact with one group of muscles around one body part without working with other body parts. These gestures have been regrouped, classified and are called microreactions. These are not associated with any gestures of the hand when it reaches for the face or the rest of the body. These gestures are called micro-attitudes.
2. Three types of micro-attitudes are described; microfixations if the hand is motionless, micro-caresses if the hand discretely stokes part of the face or body and lastly, microscratchings when the nails scratch the skin without any apparent cause or signs of spots on the skin.
3. It may also happen, far no reason other than comfort, that one hand reaches for the other. Synergology will describe this as a series of manual retroactive gestures such as: hand in hand, joined hands, crossed hands, V hands, cradled hand.
4. It is also possible that the hands may move in the air. These gestures are considered as gestures thrown in the wind, « figurative gestures, symbolic gestures imbedded in the brain. Each gesture is different by its nature, its dynamics, its interaction and the position of the hand when in movement.
5. Non-verbal communication using bodily gestures would not be fully understood if these gestures were not fully described. Numerous semi-conscious gestures can be considered, for example, when the hand reaches a sidepiece of eyeglasses or when it unconsciously stays put on the stem of a glass. The hand may also firmly hold a pair of keys, a lighter, etc.
All the items in this classification have been gathered, resulting in a «table of Non-Verbal 360°». 2 852 main items have been gathered, explaining very different and especially significant bodily gestures. These appear when some type of emotion is experienced. Different types of emotions can be carefully gathered. This is the sixth rule of classification in obtaining a clear reasoning in synergology.
Eight groups of emotions have therefore been released. These will determine if the emotion one speaks of (verbal aspect) is the same as the emotion one feels (non-verbal aspect). On a day-to-day basis, synergology allows one to determine the general coherence of a speaker in reference to his speech, either in his personal or professional field.
THE CLASSIFICATION OF KNOWLEDGE
Non-Verbal 360° is a means of deciphering the unconscious non-verbal language. The term « unconscious » is opened to numerous definitions because the capacity of the unconscious is unconscious. Non-Verbal 360° will resolve this problem in a different manner. Instead of beginning with an established theory of the unconscious, Non-Verbal 360° will observe the bodily reactions that are visible. It will not judge but will carefully classify what is observed. This is made possible by non-verbal classification. It is by reference, by proceeding with logic, grasping bodily gestures often related one to the other, that leads to observations of the unconscious, preferably referred to as the non-conscious. In synergology each gesture is categorized, becoming a specific item
Non-Verbal 360° is the observation of bodily gestures. When establishing noticeable differences of items related to general body tone, such as those differences between hyper-emotional conditions and hypo-emotional conditions, this leads to the understanding of this particular condition. It will then measure if the emotional state is either positive or negative relating to pleasure or non-pleasure observed solely by the method established. It will finally determine if the emotion was meant for the speaker or meant to be kept to oneself. Once again certain items will help interpret this condition.
Eight different groups of emotions are gathered and identified from E1 to E8. When circumstance and non-verbal items are in agreement, the emotion felt will be easily understood. Meanwhile, it may also happen that circumstances and non-verbal items are in complete disagreement. The apparent emotion, identified through verbal communication (EX: “ I AM HAPPY!”) does not correspond to items identified through non-verbal findings. A suppressed emotion is therefore presented and identified without being ambiguous.
The main question concerning the acceptance of certain knowledge is the basic target in the non-verbal field because we are dealing with social sciences. With epistemology (science of knowledge), KARL Popper, along with L’École de Vienne, have established certain criteria which envelope synergology, in obtaining valid observations based on protocol. Based on the studies of L’École de Vienne, a proposition has been presented. Subsequently, KARL Popper suggests that to imagine a refutable theory, one can use as an example, the following: “100,000 white swans on a lake does not mean that the suggestion that “all swans are white” is necessarily true. On the other hand, one single black swan on a lake will allow to determine that suggesting all swans are white is false. A proposition is scientific, not because it is true, but depending on the point of view, it can also be considered false if it truly is false. One can clearly see the difference between scientific and metaphysic propositions. All propositions in synergology are refutable. For example, Philippe Turchet has discovered that when man is being agreeable and relaxed, he will speak to someone while looking at his subject with his left eye, no matter which eye has the strongest vision, even if he is one-eyed. This proposition is clear enough to be refutable. In this case it would take a significant percentage of individuals who would like looking at their subjects with their right eye, to prove this proposition wrong, which is not really recognized. With Non-Verbal 360°, non-truths can be denounced when encountered, here and there, in the non-verbal field.
Non-Verbal 360° has opened the debate on knowledge (epistemology), the recognition of a discipline outside the traditional spheres. Numerous findings have been discovered when applying its theories. For example, a non-conscious glance is related to knowledge that in it- self, will have repercussions in other disciplines, mainly that of criminology. The direct relationship between gestures and eye movements allows us to discover neuro-symbolisms in space. Throughout, the years, their discovery could have a direct impact in various fields such as that of animated films. These gestures are regrouped because they have been coded, computerized and transferred directly where applicable. The quality of the unconscious symbolic gestures in space has always peeked the curiosity of psychoanalysts. These discoveries are made possible by independent researchers and are allowed to evolve outside the spheres of the traditional university. Because of this fact, one must wonder about its institutional status. Today synergology is working on a trade name at the national institute of intellectual proprieties in France. This will therefore allow only the most complete and careful information to be given out.
NOTES AND REFERENCES
– How to recognize facial expressions, emotions, deception: Paul EKMAN – Unconscious – Language
EXTERNAL WEB SITE
– Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nonverbal_communication
– Bateson, Grégory: Pour une écologie de l’esprit, Seuil, Paris, 2 tomes, 1977.
· Birdwhistell, Ray : Kinesics and context : essays on body motion communication, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1970.
· Crigley Hugo D, Dolan Raymond et Christophe J.: “Neural activity relating to generation and representation of galvanic skin conductance responses : a functional magnetic resonance imaging study”, Journal of neuroscience, 20, 2000, pp.3030-3040.
· Dimberg, Ulf : “Facial electromyography and emotional reactions”. Psychophysiology, 27, 1990, pp. 481-494.
· Eibl Eibesfeldt Irenaüss: L’homme programmé, Trad., Flammarion, 1976 , 256 pages.
· Ekman Paul, O’Sullivan M, Frank M.G, « A few Can Catch A liar”, Psychological Science, 10, 1999, pp. 263-266.
· Ekman et Friesen : Ekman P., Friesen W. : Hand movements, Journal of Communication, 22, pp. 353-374.
· Ekman Paul et Friesen W : “Detecting deception fom the body or face”, Journal of personality and Social Psychology, 29, pp. 288-298.
· Ekman Paul et Friesen W “Nonverbal leakage and cues to deception”, Psychiatry, 32, 1969, pp. 88-105.
· Freedman N, et Steingart J : “Kinesic intenalization and language construction” in Spence DB : Psychoanalysis and contempory science, Vol IV, 1975, New York, University Press, pp. 355-403.
· Hattfield E, Costello J, Weisman MS, Denney C : “The impact of vocal Feedback on emotional experience and expression”, Journal of social behavior
· Heilman K.M et Watson R.T : “ Arousal and emotions ” in F Boller et Grafman J : Handbook of neuropsychology, 1983 , Vol 3 pp; 403-417, Amsterdam, Elsevier.
· Johnson Mark, The body in the mind, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1987, 233 p.
· Kimura D., : “ The neural basis of gesture ”, In H. Whitaker et H.A Whitaker : Sudies in neurolinguistics, 1976 , Vol 2 (pp. 145-156).
· Kimura D et Humphrys C.A : “A comparison of left and right arm movement during speaking”, Neuropsychologia, 19, 1981, pp.807-812
· Kraut E, Poe Donald : The deception judgement of Custom Inspectors
· Laymen, Journal of personnality and social psychology, 39, 1980, pp 784-798. Mc Neill D : “So you think gestures are nonverbal ?” Psychological review, 92, 1986, pp. 350-371.
· Mehrabian Albert : Nonverbal communication, Chicago, Aldine-Atherton, 1972.
· Morow L, Urtunski B, Kim Y, Boller F :”Arousal responses to emotional stimuli and laterality of lesion”, Neuropsychologia, 1981, 19, 65-71.
· Karl PopperLa logique de la découverte scientifique,
· Karl PopperConjectures et réfutations,
· Robert-Ouvray Suzanne.B : Intégration motrice et développement psychique, Desclée de Brouwer, 276 pages, Paris, 1997.
· Rosenthal Robert : “The PONS test : Measuring Sensitivity to nonverbal cues” in P; Mac Reynolds : Advances in Psychology Assessment, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1977.
· Scherer K.R et Wallbott H.G : Evidence for universality and cultural variation of differential émotion response patterning. Journal of personality and Social psychology, 1994, 66, pp. 310-328.
· Skinner M et Mullen B : “ Facial assymetry in emotional expression : A meta-analysis of research ”. British Journal of psychology, 1991, 30, pp. 113-124.
· Tubbs s.l, Moss s : The non verbal message in human communication, Mc Graw Hill 1994, Singapour
· Tucker D.M, Williamson P.A : “Asymétric neural control systems in human self regulation”, Psychological review, 91, pp. 185-215.
· To cath a lie : Christian Martineau – Christine Gagnon
· Vertischel Patrick : « La main du diable », Cerveau et psycho 6, pp.68-72.
· Zoccolotti P., Scabini D., Violani C., : “ Electrodermal responses in patients with unilateral brain damage ”. Journal of clinical Neuropsychology, 4, pp. 143-150.
Non-verbal communication (body language) is our true passion. We offer all the necessary tools to read the non-verbal as well as the emotions. Please take advantage of our free examples and free exercises to practice. Finally, in order to make your staff more efficient, our speakers or our professional trainers can offer you a conference or a personal training program that truly fits your needs. A book is also available. Our passion takes us wherever you want, anywhere in the world. Non-verbal.com is the solution!
This post is also available in: French